In general, children have been protected from the worst effects of COVID-19 so far. After clinical remission of the original infection and viral clearance, many children reported long-term or chronic fatigue, headache, numbness, depression, altered smell and taste, or poor appetite.
Although existing COVID-19 vaccines reduce the likelihood of serious and fatal COVID-19 outcomes, they may not be able to completely prevent prolonged COVID in groundbreaking infections. As a result, the current study looks at children’s long-term covid to better understand how it affects this patient population.
The underlying mechanisms that cause increased COVID are unknown, and there is limited information on which organs are most affected.
Current studies have investigated the effects of nutrition on SARS-CoV-2 immunity, both during acute illness and long-term consequences. Lack of anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant ingredients in the diet may be an explanation. This may indicate that a patient’s diet lacks immunomodulation and antiviral action, making their symptoms worse after SARS-CoV-2 infection.
Fermented cabbage and other Brassica vegetables have been found to be the main constituents of the population with very low COVID-19 mortality. Another group of theories has linked vitamin D, zinc, selenium, and magnesium deficiencies to more severe COVID-19 forms and / or greater mortality. These results suggest that nutritional treatment for COVID-19 patients may have significant effects in reducing inflammation and oxidative stress.
In addition, these substances may prevent increased tissue damage as well as prevent intestinal dysbiosis by preventing viral replication, reducing the tendency to clot, and protecting host cells from injury caused by SARS-CoV-2. The severity of the disease, as well as the presence of cytokines, inflammatory chemicals, biomarkers of tissue injuries, and endless symptoms are all indicators of intestinal dysbiosis.
Vitamin B complex is important for energy metabolism, as well as for the synthesis of nucleic acids and proteins. These vitamins, which are also important for immune control, are cofactors for numerous mitochondrial and protein enzymes, have antioxidant properties and help repair inflammatory pathways.
Neuropathy and neuroinflammation are caused by a lack of thiamine (B1), while B6 in active form reduces inflammation. B12 (cobalamine) is a glutathione-sparing antioxidant that removes reactive oxygen species (ROS) from tissues and regulates cytokine levels. Endothelial function is enhanced by methyl folate.
Taken together, these vitamins are also essential for the health of the intestinal microbiome. Their combination with a combination of vitamin D and magnesium has been linked to COVID-19 clinical mildness. Vitamin D affects the immunological response, and adequate levels of the vitamin in plasma are associated with a lower risk of infection.
Vitamin D has been shown to reduce COVID-19-induced mortality in hospitalized patients by protecting them from pulmonary and endothelial damage. Vitamin D may help protect the gut from dysbiosis and prevent autoimmune disorders associated with SARS-CoV-2. These researchers believe that daily supplements are more desirable than monthly doses.
Vitamin C, like Vitamin E, is an important antioxidant that plays a role in energy metabolism and a variety of biosynthetic pathways that make up neurotransmitters. Vitamin C is an important component of immunity, and its deficiency is associated with fatigue, discomfort, and mental confusion.
Magnesium is the most common bipolar cation in cells, and it plays an important role in cell division and differentiation. This mineral is essential for cardiac function and vascular tone, as well as for vasoconstriction and to prevent clotting and atherosclerosis.
Magnesium deficiency can lead to high blood pressure, metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease and low-grade inflammation and affects hundreds of pathways in the body. Fatigue and muscle pain associated with prolonged covid may be associated with oxidative stress due to low magnesium levels.
The effects of low magnesium levels on platelet adhesion and aggregation may also be responsible for the microthrombotic consequences of this disease. Finally, its deficiency affects the biological availability and action of vitamin D. Magnesium, selenium and coenzyme Q10 supplements, on the other hand, improve the structure and function of the thyroid gland, which is noticeable in some individuals due to the prevalence of thyroiditis as a symptom of chronic covid.
Selenium also has a variety of biological functions, including reducing ROS levels and correcting stress-induced inflammatory pathways. Not only does it avoid the hyper-inflammatory response of SARS-CoV-2 infection, but it also has the potential to limit the formation of ROS-induced viral mutations that improve viral pathogenicity.
Selenium deficiency can be fatal, as evidenced by China’s famous hair disease; However, supplements can help alleviate these problems. Selenium improves thyroid and intestinal microbiota function, as well as possibly mental well-being.
Zinc supplementation is particularly important because it is a component of hundreds of transcription factors and thousands of enzymes, as well as mediating cellular signaling. In addition to growth and development, zinc is required for DNA production and RNA transcription. Zinc also reduces oxidative stress and stimulates T- and B-cell growth, affecting immunity.
Zinc deficiency is associated with autoimmune disease, endothelial dysfunction, and T-helper Th17 cell proliferation, all of which can make people more prone to inflammation.
Phytochemicals are expected to be effective in reducing the hyper-inflammatory response and autoimmunity by reducing viral proliferation and the host response of SARS-CoV-2. These compounds bind to SARS-CoV-2 particles both inside and outside the cell, binding to receptors, as well as inhibiting the spread and secretion of virion from infected cells.
In addition to preventing platelet activation and thrombosis, most phytochemicals help keep the heart rhythm stable. Resveratrol, quercetin, curcumin, and sulforaphane are the most studied phytochemicals.
The authors emphasize that measuring the amount of these potentially protective nutraceuticals is important for determining SARS-CoV-2 resistance and their true role in future waves.
In the absence of any effective treatment for chronic covid, supplementation with these compounds seems to be an intelligent strategy to help these people find some relief from their symptoms.
But many studies have shown that supplements may not be better than eating a balanced diet, experts recommend eating mushrooms, spinach, cruciferous vegetables that are high in carotenoids (beta-carotene, lutein, xanthine); Vitamins C, E and K; Folate and minerals.
They are also a good source of fiber.
Cruciferous vegetables include broccoli, kale, cauliflower, wasabi, collard greens, kale, cauliflower and Brussels sprouts.
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